By W. Silas. Randolph College.
Humans also use this more primitive type of communication atrovent 20mcg without a prescription, in the form of nonverbal behaviorssuch as eye contact cheap atrovent 20mcg, touch discount 20mcg atrovent with amex, hand signs discount atrovent 20 mcg otc, and interpersonal distance order 20mcg atrovent, to communicate their like or dislike for others, but they (unlike animals) also supplant this more primitive communication with language. Although other animal brains share similarities to ours, only the human brain is complex enough to create language. What is perhaps most remarkable is that although language never appears in nonhumans, language is universal in humans. Language and Perception To this point in the chapter we have considered intelligence and language as if they are separate concepts. The idea that language and its structures influence and limit human thought is called linguistic relativity. The most frequently cited example of this possibility was proposed by Benjamin Whorf (1897– 1941), an American linguist who was particularly interested in Native American languages. Whorf argued that the Inuit people of Canada (sometimes known as Eskimos) had many words for snow, whereas English speakers have only one, and that this difference influenced how the different cultures perceived snow. Whorf argued that the Inuit perceived and categorized snow in finer details than English speakers possibly could, because the English language constrained perception. Although the idea of linguistic relativism seemed reasonable, research has suggested that language has less influence on thinking than might be expected. For one, in terms of perceptions of snow, although it is true that the Inuit do make more distinctions among types of snow than do English speakers, the latter also make some distinctions (think “powder,‖ “slush,‖ “whiteout,‖ and so forth). And it is also possible that thinking about snow may influence language, rather than the other way around. In a more direct test of the possibility that language influences thinking, Eleanor Rosch  (1973) compared people from the Dani culture of New Guinea, who have only two terms for color (“dark‖ and “bright‖), with English speakers who use many more terms. Rosch hypothesized that if language constrains perception and categorization, then the Dani should have a harder time distinguishing colors than would English speakers. But her research found that when the Dani were asked to categorize colors using new categories, they did so in almost Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Similar results were found by Frank, Everett,  Fedorenko, and Gibson (2008), who showed that the Amazonian tribe known as the Pirahã, who have no linguistic method for expressing exact quantities (not even the number “one‖), were nevertheless able to perform matches with large numbers without problem. Although these data led researchers to conclude that the language we use to describe color and number does not influence our underlying understanding of the underlying sensation, another more recent study has questioned this assumption. Roberson, Davies, and Davidoff  (2000) conducted another study with Dani participants and found that, at least for some colors, the names that they used to describe colors did influence their perceptions of the colors. Other researchers continue to test the possibility that our language influences our perceptions,  and perhaps even our thoughts (Levinson, 1998), and yet the evidence for this possibility is, as of now, mixed. Some languages are sign languages, in which the communication is expressed by movements of the hands. Chomsky differentiates between the deep structure and the surface structure of an idea. Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Critical evidence: A test of the critical-period hypothesis for second-language acquisition. A cross-language investigation of infant preference for infant-directed communication. Early referential understanding: Infants’ ability to recognize referential acts for what they are. Linguistic biases and the establishment of conceptual hierarchies: Evidence from preschool children. The emergence of Nicaraguan Sign Language: Questions of development, acquisition, and evolution. The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain: Proficiency in a second language and age at acquisition affect grey-matter density. Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture. Studying spatial conceptualization across cultures: Anthropology and cognitive science.
When these data 20mcg atrovent free shipping, combined with a list of unique identifers order atrovent 20mcg with visa, are compared to a database of missing persons cheap 20mcg atrovent with amex, the list of possible matches usually reduces to a manageable few generic 20mcg atrovent with mastercard. At the discovery of unknown human remains buy 20mcg atrovent fast delivery, the authorities will either have a theory about the identity of the decedent or not. Tis will include dental charts, bitewings and pano- graphic images if available, old x-rays, or other medical images (e. When images are unavailable, medical records describing pros- theses, pacemakers, shunt devices, cosmetic implants, orthopedic devices, and the like may be sufciently detailed for comparison to the postmortem evidence. Antemortem records of diseases that would be expected to leave evi- dence in the hard tissues are also useful, particularly when the incidence of a disorder is known. In some cases of suspected identity, when none of the foregoing is available, it is sometimes useful to perform a skull-to-photograph superimposition. Although tradition- ally used to exclude matches, some have successfully employed video super- imposition to achieve positive identifcations when a complete skull and good quality photographs from several angles are available. Tis approach rises to the standard of positive identifcation when combinations of features such as treatments (e. Tis technique is best deployed jointly by the anthropologist and the odontologist. Te likelihood of an individual being a particular sex, age, ancestry, and stature is roughly the product of the individual probabilities of being any one of 148 Forensic dentistry those things. When individual identifers are available, those with a known incidence can be entered into the calculation, reducing the set of possible matches toward unity. Identifers that can be traced directly to a decedent provide the basis for a positive identifcation, e. In such instances it is imperative that direct association between the decedent and the device can be established. For example, an orthodontic or orthopedic device afxed to the remains is preferable to one that has become detached. Experience in mass death incidents involv- ing scattered and commingled remains bear this out. In some instances an implant, orthopedic device, or prosthesis may be found in a decedent without a suspected match. If the medical artifact bears a serial number and can be attributed to a particular manufacturer, it is sometimes possible to trace the device to a particular treatment facility, and thence through surgical records to a recipient. Whatever the means of identifcation, in the post-Daubert era, all conclusions and the techniques from which they are derived will require robust statistical support. As an example, though used as a basis for positive identifcation for years, comparison of ante- and postmortem frontal sinus x-rays has only recently been validated. Te main reasons for esti- mating the postmortem interval are (1) the inclusion or exclusion of suspects, (2) reduction of the number of possible matches in a database, and (3) deter- mination of the forensic signifcance of a set of remains, i. On most occasions, when an anthropologist is asked to deter- mine the postmortem interval, the decedent will have been dead for weeks to years. Ideally, the remains will be pristine, and it is for this reason that many examiners prefer to attend the recovery, whether it may be an exhumation, collection of scattered bones, or even submerged remains. Te anthropolo- gist may supervise and document the process, collecting relevant samples, e. But, most importantly, he or she will want to assess the remains in context before any processing occurs. General observations will include corporal (from the body) as well as environmental information: What is the quantity and qual- ity of the remains? What are the characteristics of the local weather, terrain, water sources, and fauna, all of which will infuence the rate of decomposition or disassembly of remains? In addition to these two major sources of information, there are two general approaches to timing a death: rate methods and concurrence methods. Te degree to which bone has lost mineral and organic content, the change in sound or electrical conduction properties of bone, changes in specifc gravity, and the amount of total lipid lost are examples of features that change with documentable rates. Te details of these and other rate techniques are beyond the scope of this discussion, but may be found elsewhere. Concurrence estimates of the postmortem interval depend upon establishing an association between the remains and an object or event for which time can be fxed.
The Hite Reports Shere Hite (1976 buy 20mcg atrovent fast delivery, 1981 discount 20 mcg atrovent amex, 1987) published the results from her 20 years of research in her reports on female and male sexuality atrovent 20mcg discount. Her research also illustrates the shift from the outcome of sex to sex as an activity buy atrovent 20mcg online. Hite’s main claim is that ‘most women (70 per cent) do not orgasm as a result of intercourse’ but she suggests that they can learn to increase clitoral stimulation during intercourse to improve their sexual enjoyment purchase atrovent 20 mcg online. She describes her data in terms of women’s dislike of penetrative sex (‘Perhaps it could be said that many women might be rather indiﬀerent to intercourse if it were not for feelings towards a particular man’) and discusses sex within the context of pleasure, not reproduction. Segal (1994) has criticized Hite’s interpretation of the data and argues that the women in Hite’s studies appear to enjoy penetration (with or without orgasm). Although this is in contradiction to Hite’s own conclusion, the emphasis is still on sex as an activity. In summary From the start of the twentieth century, therefore, sex was no longer described as a biological means to an end (reproduction) but as an activity in itself. Discussions of ‘good sex’, orgasms and sexual pleasure emphasized sex as action, however, even as an activity sex remained predominantly biological. Kinsey regarded sex as a drive that was natural and healthy, Masters and Johnson developed means to measure and improve the sexual experience by examining physiological changes and Hite explained pleasure with descriptions of physical stimulation. Sex as a risk to health Recently, there has been an additional shift in the literature on sex. Although research still emphasizes sex as an activity, this activity has been viewed as increasingly risky and dangerous. However, studying sexual behaviour is not straightforward from a psychological perspective as it presents a problem for psychologists – a problem of interaction. Sex as interaction Social psychologists have spent decades emphasizing the context within which behaviour occurs. This is reﬂected in the extensive literature on areas such as con- formity to majority and minority inﬂuence, group behaviour and decision making, and obedience to authority. Such a perspective emphasizes that an individual’s behaviour occurs as an interaction both with other individuals and with the broader social context. In addition, psychological methodologies such as questionnaires and interviews involve an individual’s experience (e. I felt happy because she made me feel relaxed), only their own individual experiences are accessed using the psychological tools available. Sex is intrinsically an interaction between individuals, yet many areas of psychology traditionally study individuals on their own. Furthermore, the recent emphasis on sex as a risk to health and resulting attempts to examine indi- viduals’ competence at protecting themselves from danger, may have resulted in a more individualistic model of behaviour. This problem of interaction is exacerbated by the psychological methodologies available (unless the researcher simply observes two people having sex! They also raise the question of how much can and should psychologists be concerned with the context of individual behaviour? Sex as a risk and pregnancy avoidance A focus on sex for pleasure and an emphasis on sex as a risk has resulted in a literature on contraception use and pregnancy avoidance. Psychologists have developed models in order to describe and predict this behaviour. Researchers have used several diﬀerent classiﬁcations of contraception in an attempt to predict contraceptive use. In addition, diﬀerent measures of actual behaviour have been used when predicting contraception use: s at ﬁrst ever intercourse; s at most recent intercourse; s at last serious intercourse; s at last casual intercourse. This produced a wealth of data about factors such as age of ﬁrst intercourse, homosexuality, attitudes to sexual behaviours and contraception use. These results suggest that the younger someone is when they ﬁrst have sex (either male or female), the less likely they are to use contraception. The results from this survey also show what kinds of contraception people use at ﬁrst intercourse. The diﬀerent measures of contraception use have implications for interpreting ﬁndings on contraception. Developmental models are more descriptive, whereas decision-making models examine the predictors and precursors to this behaviour. Developmental models Developmental models emphasize contraception use as involving a series of stages.
These are more appropriate for agitated or anxious patients than for withdrawn or apa- Symptoms resolving Symptoms persist thetic patients purchase atrovent 20mcg amex, for whom imipramine or nortriptyline atrovent 20 mcg fast delivery, which are less sedative 20 mcg atrovent mastercard, are preferred generic atrovent 20mcg online. One of the factors involved may be the wide variation in individual plasma concentrations of these drugs that is Figure 20 20 mcg atrovent for sale. When symptoms persist after first-line treatment, re-evaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis, the adequacy of the dose plasma concentration and response is not well defined. A mul- and the duration of treatment before moving to the second ticentre collaborative study organized by the World Health phase of treatment. Copyright 2000 ever between plasma amitriptyline concentration and clinical Turner White Communications, Inc. Augmentation* mild symptoms, low risk involves the use of a combination symptoms, or high risk symptoms, low risk of medications to enhance the efficacy of an antidepressant. Sometimes anxiety, powerful anticholinergic and cardiac toxic effects than second- agitation and restlessness follow sudden withdrawal. Allergic and idiosyncratic reactions These include bone marrow suppression and jaundice (both rare). As discussed above, they may also induce a slow adaptive decrease in pre- and/or postsynaptic amine Contraindications receptor sensitivity. These include the following: Adverse effects • epilepsy; • recent myocardial infarction, heart block; Autonomic (anticholinergic)/cardiovascular Dry mouth, • mania; constipation (rarely paralytic ileus, gastroparesis), • porphyria. Rarely, sudden death due to a cardiac This is a mixed group which includes 1-, 2- and 4-ring struc- dysrhythmia. In overdose, a range of tachydysrhythmias tured drugs with broadly similar properties. Central nervous system Fine tremor and sedation, but also Maprotiline – sedative, with less antimuscarinic effects, but (paradoxically) sometimes insomnia, decreased rapid eye rashes are more common and fits are a significant risk. On with much fewer anticholinergic effects, but can cause withdrawal of the drug, there may be gastro-intestinal postural hypotension and blood dyscrasias, particularly in symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, headache, the elderly. This combination of actions appears to be Contraindications associated with antidepressant activity, anxiolytic and sedative effects. Reported adverse effects include increased These include the following: appetite, weight gain, drowsiness, dry mouth and (rarely) • liver failure; blood dyscrasias. A treatment • antihypertensives and diuretics increase orthostatic card for patients should be carried at all times, which describes hypotension; precautions and lists some of the foods to be avoided. The • hypertension and cardiac dysrhythmias with adrenaline, interactions are as follows: noradrenaline and ephedrine. Such serious reactions are precipitated These drugs were little used for many years because of their by amines, including indirectly acting sympathomimetic toxicity, and particularly potentially lethal food and drug inter- agents such as tyramine (in cheese), dopamine (in broad actions causing hypertensive crises. They can be effective in some forms of refractory wine), phenylephrine (including that administered as depression and anxiety states, for which they are generally nosedrops and in cold remedies), ephedrine, amfetamine reserved. These drugs will have an exaggerated attacks or multiple somatic symptoms; and prolonged effect; 4. Patients should avoid major dietary changes that alter • The choice is usually related to the side-effect profile of sodium intake and maintain an adequate water intake. Different lithium preparations have different bioavailabili- • Tricyclic antidepressants commonly cause antimuscarinic ties, so the form should not be changed. This Antidepressant contraindications probably underlies some of the adverse effects of lithium, • Tricyclic antidepressants – recent myocardial infarction, such as goitre and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, since dysrhythmias, manic phase, severe liver disease. Although lithium is widely used in affective disorders, it has a low toxic to therapeutic ratio, and serum concentration moni- Adverse effects toring is essential. When monitored regularly lithium is reasonably safe in of possible problems due to lithium heparin, which is often the medium term. However, adverse effects occur even in used as an anticoagulant in blood sample tubes. Serum the therapeutic range – in particular, tremor, weight gain, lithium levels fluctuate between doses and serum concentra- oedema, polyuria, nausea and loose bowels. Above the therapeutic range, tremor coarsens, diarrhoea hours after the previous dose.
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